Genus Cynomys – Prairie Dogs

Prairie dogs are robust rodents, slightly grizzled and fat. They have broad, rounded heads, hairy tails and short legs. The skull has 22 teeth.

Prairie dogs weigh 1 1/2 to 3 lbs. The head and body are 11 to 13 inches long, with a tail length of 3 to 4 inches. They are yellowish in color, with darker ears and a pale buff to whitish belly. Prairie dogs have whitish or buffy patches on the sides of their nose, their upper lips and around their eyes in the form of a ring.

 

Prairie Dog Geography – Range

Throughout most of the western United States from Canada to Mexico — Montana, the Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, Utah, and Wyoming — including higher elevations of the Mojave, Great Basin and Chihuahuan deserts.

View a short video on Prairie Dogs.

Related Species

Prairie dogs are the most social members of the squirrel family and are closely related to ground squirrels, chipmunks and marmots. There are five species of prairie dogs (genus Cynomys):

Black-Tailed Prairie Dog (C. ludovicianus) occupies narrow bands of dry plains stretching from central Texans to Canada.

White-Tailed Prairie Dog (C. leucurus) inhabits Western US: Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and Montana.

Gunnison’s Prairie Dog (C. gunnisoni) has a much shorter tail than other prairie dogs. It is uniquely colored and centers around the Four Corners area at elevations from 5000-11000 feet.

Mexican Prairie Dog (C. mexicanus) is an endangered species with a limited distribution. It is only found within parts of Mexico.

Utah Prairie Dog (C. parvidens) is the smallest of all prairie dogs and threatened.

Comparisons

Of the two main species of prairie dogs, the black-tailed (C. ludovicianus) has a black-tipped tail and is much more widespread, occurring sparsely over the Great Plains and throughout the Great Basin. Black-tailed are the prairie dogs normally sold in pet shops and may either be a baby caught in the wild or from a breeder.

The other main species, the white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus), has a white-tipped tail and inhabits higher altitudes than the black-tailed. It hibernates in winter and is less colonial in habit.

 

Vocalization

Prairie dogs have a high-pitched, bark-like call. Recent studies suggest that prairie dogs possess the most sophisticated of all natural animal languages. They apparently issue different sounds identifying various predators, which include hawks, owls, eagles, ravens, coyotes, badgers, ferrets and snakes. Prairie dogs can run up to 35 miles per hour for short distances. The prairie dog has only one defense that works — raising the alarm and disappearing quickly.
Tail

Prairie dog tails are generally short and bushy, but vary considerably in length and color between species.

Ears
Prairie dogs’ ears are very short and often hidden in the fur.

Eyes

Prairie dogs’ eyes, which are positioned on the sides of the head, appear to be adapted for detecting movement over a wide arc; this allows the detection of predators with greater success.

Feet

Prairie dog’s feet are a usually a creamy color.

Behavior

All prairie dogs are diurnal. While most may be dormant for short periods of cold weather, the white-tailed species is a true hibernator in winter.

Prairie dogs have an intricate social system composed of one male and several close-kin females and their offspring. Populations vary from 5 to 35 per acre.

The prairie dog digs its own burrows. There is a well-constructed and frequently reinforced dike against flooding from sudden rains. The entrance holes themselves are funnel-shaped, from 3 to 4 inches in diameter.

 

These tunnels lead down a steeply slanting corridor 15 or 16 feet before leveling off for another 20 to 50 feet. There are side chambers for storage, for nesting and for escape should the tunnel be invaded by predators or flooding. They may extend 100 feet or more.

When a predator approaches, the first alert prairie dog gives a sharp warning call, bobs up and down in excitement, calls again and then plunges below. The danger signal is a 2-syllable bark, issued at about 40 barks per minute. Other sentinels farther from the danger zone take up the watch, monitoring the course of the predator.

Habitat
Short and medium grass prairies and plateaus of the American West.

Food & Hunting
Although prairie dogs are almost exclusively vegetarian, nursing females have been observed both cannibalizing and communally nursing each other’s pups. The various native plants of the Great Plains make up the prairie dog’s primary diet, comprising all kinds of grasses, roots, weeds, forbs and blossoms. They acquire all of their water from the food they eat. Sometimes insects are also eaten.

 

Breeding

One litter is born to the prairie dog female each year. During a 4- or 5- hour estrus, a female prairie dog may mate with as many as 5 different males, allowing pups from the same litter to have different fathers.

For the black-tailed, mating generally occurs in late January, with the young being born in March and April (a gestation period of 28 to 32 days). The white-tailed mates in March or April, with the young being born in May. These youngsters hibernate with their parents October through March in the north and in high mountain valleys.

 

There are usually 3 to 5 youngsters in a litter, but sometimes as many as 8. The young are blind and hairless. Their eyes don’t open for 33 to 37 days. At about 6 weeks, they begin to appear above ground and are ready to be weaned. They probably separate from the mother by early fall.

During May and the early part of June, the young begin to emerge from their burrows for the first time. At this time, yearlings (young from the previous year) and some adults may relocate, leaving the young pups to feel secure both socially and environmentally in the old burrow. When prairie dogs relocate, they take over abandoned holes or dig new holes at the edge of the town. A few may travel miles in search of new areas, but once away form the communal warning system, most are easy prey for predators.

Conservation

Common predators of the prairie dog include coyotes, bobcats, eagles, hawks, badgers and weasels.

Because they eat as much as 7 percent of a ranch’s forage, prairie dog eradication programs have been underway for decades in the American West. But a growing number of experts argue that prairie dogs may actually be beneficial, that they are natural fertilizers who also increase the protein content and digestibility of rangeland grasses.

Today, after decades of eradication by federal, state, and local governments, devastation from disease, poisoning, recreational shooting and habitat destruction, prairie dogs are rapidly disappearing. More have been exterminated than remain, inhabiting only about 2 percent of their former range. Colonies are being preserved, however, in Wind Cave National Park, Devils Tower National Monument and in the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Reserve. The city of Santa Fe, New Mexico maintains a municipal park with a resident colony of Gunnison’s prairie dogs.

Cautions

Prairie dogs are very susceptible to bubonic plague, acquiring it from fleas infected with plague bacteria. Most public health officials believe the chance of contracting plague from prairie dog fleas is very low, but flea-borne disease can wipe out a colony. Prairie dogs have lived up to 8 1/2 years in captivity.

 

Curious Prairie Dog Facts

Prairie dogs are stout, burrowing rodents among the many varieties of ground squirrels.

Prairie dog burrows are called “towns.”

Most prairie dogs hibernate during the winter.

Settlers called them “dogs” and “sod poodles” because of their high-pitched, bark-like call.

As members of the genus Cynomys (Greek for “mouse dog”), all 5 species of Prairie Dogs belong to the squirrel family (Sciuridae).

Prairie dogs issue different sounds identifying various predators, which include hawks, owls, eagles, ravens, coyotes, badgers, ferrets and snakes.

At the turn of the century, as many as 5 billion prairie dogs occupied millions of acres of grass prairies across the West.

In 1900, a huge prairie dog settlement, 100 miles by 250 miles, was reported on the high plains of Texas containing an estimated 400 million prairie dogs!

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Hungry Shark Evolution techniques & Methods For newcomers

The Hungry Shark series of games has been chomping its way through app shops for many decades now, and even though Hungry Shark World recently released, many players are still hung upon the prior entry–Hungry Shark Evolution and are looking for a great hungry shark evolution hack ios, key, or tip.

Appamatix is here with a whole bunch of secrets, tips, and tricks (no real hacks, sorry friends) that will help you to whip through this video game and unlock all its features in no time at all. Prepared to knuckle down and swim the seas? Then read on!

It is no great surprise that most sharks make for great video game fodder, and the first name in the series–simply titled Hungry Shark–demonstrated that once again. It is the same rule that’s kept sharks popular in movie theatres for years on end–they’re mysterious, they’re mortal, and since they’re the masters of a environment that is not our very own, they’re frightening!

With Hungry Shark Evolution, we are given much more cartoonish versions of those oceans top predators, but it does not keep the video game from becoming equally as fun. You will find far more sharks to unlock, more areas to swim in, and much more things to buy for the cadre of fish.
If the Hungry Shark series is guilty of something, it is of shooting quite a while to alter the fundamental principles which created the first video game so successful, while still staying true to its principal gameplay mode. You’re still swimming the seas. You’re still growing. You’re still eating as much as possible so as to keep swimming. In Hungry Shark Evolution, but the video game has shifted to make you want to play the several sharks which have been added to the video game. Missions are divided based on each specific shark, and you’ll now sometimes face supervisors. Cool, right?

“Evolution” remains a core principle of this specific video game, and it is the goal which you will be constantly working towards as you stand up higher scores, and collect more coins and jewels, and learn how to endure longer with each play session.

In all that time that you’re bound to spend playing, it is likely to be valuable to keep in mind some basic, easy tips which can be used for the entirety of your experience. The following hints, secrets, and suggestions are meant to be used by newbies and Hungry Shark experts alike, so next time you boot up the app for a quick swim, keep them in mind!
If this is not your initial Hungry Shark video game, then this could be a moot point. It is, however, exceptionally important that you learn how to look at your map quickly and often while you’re playing Hungry Shark Evolution. Especially as your shark starts to require more food to continue swimming, you’ll want to understand how to navigate a specific area (or the way to get into a spot you’ve never been, before.)

It can be easy to become caught up in all that eating and swimming, but knowing where you’re can keep you moving and help you to find mission objectives (more about this later) that much better! Turn it to a solid Hungry Shark habit.

Manage Your Resources
When monetization is what controls the profit of a video game, it always tends to show up in the same manner –progress is gated by amassing a certain currency, which just so happens to be available for purchase along with your hard-earned cash in an in-app cash shop. This is not necessarily a bad thing, however for those people without a great deal of disposable income, it means we will need to work harder to keep track of the resources which become available only through playing the video game.

Coins and jewels are where it is at in Hungry Shark Evolution, and they control the pace where you unlock sharks, evolve them, and purchase things for them (including little shark companions, which we’ll talk about momentarily!)

Rather than dumping all your resources to a specific shark or special evolution path, it is rather smarter to spread out your coins and gems equally. Your progress through the video game (and pleasure you have while enjoying it) only stand to benefit!

Sponsorship Matters!
When beginning Hungry Shark Evolution, you will frequently be tempted into viewing trailers for other games at the guarantee of free gems.

This is not a scam. Do It! It is a few minutes out of your daily life, and gems are a fairly scarce commodity as it is. Just do not become reliant on the earnings, since they’re not necessarily going to be available to you. Similarly, you will receive bonus jewels for”liking” the Hungry Shark Evolution page on Facebook, as long as you do not mind that specific piece of information showing up in your own news feed, do that as well!

Track Your Gold Rush
Gold rushes are the best way to grab a massive amount of things, so when you finally manage to get one (the need changes per type of shark), go crazy! If there’s ever a time to play aggressively, research, and utilize boosts, it is while you’re binging on tons of points from a gold rush.

The tip behind all this, however, is to be cautious while you’re going nuts. I know, right? It sounds contradictory, but I can’t even count the amount of times that I’ve been cruising together, only having eyes for things my shark can eat, and I run smack into something which whittles down my life bar in moments.

It is a bummer, and it is totally preventable by keeping your eyes open while you’re on a gold rush.

Daily Challenges
Many free-to-play app shop games attempt to keep you coming back by providing rewards for play. Of course, they do not want you to reap the benefits rewards daily (you will have to pay for monetized things in app’s cash store ( for this ), however there’ll always be a set of daily challenge assignments for you to tackle that could lead to gems and coins.

Provided that you are aware of how to complete them economically, they’re never going to have a lot of time. In addition to that, the bonus gets bigger each sequential day that you complete them, beginning with 100 coins and construction up to 400, before resetting.

Growth Factors Issue
There aren’t many currencies to keep tabs at Hungry Shark Evolution, but in addition to gems and coins you also have expansion points. These are the gate by which you will gain access to other sharks from the video game, and the reason which you would like to stay alive for as long as you can in each and every play session.

You begin the video game as an itty-bitty Reef Shark, and while you’re still capable of eating all kinds of things, the deeper ocean will immediately show you that a larger shark is going to be essential to tackle larger objects. After earning 2000 expansion points, you will then be allowed to spend 1500 coins to unlock the Mako Shark. The tendency climbs and climbs until you closing achieve the pinnacle of shark evolution using the Megalodon.

Baby Onboard
What is the simplest way to make the dangerous seas sense a little bit safe? Purchase a baby shark to roam around with you, naturally! Like the principal shark species you’ll be able to play as in the video game, baby sharks come in all sorts of different varieties which become more deadly at the same time they become more costly.

Purchase one of those little buggers, however, and you will quickly find yourself happy to have that extra set of chompers swimming together as your wingman.

I never anticipated”boss battles” to be as incredibly enjoyable as they are in Hungry Shark Evolution, but the developers nevertheless was able to pull off it in the form of Giant Enemy Crabs. These difficult creates hang out at the bottom of the ocean and are really fairly difficult to tackle, but you can do it with almost any sized shark. The tradeoff is that you’ll have a mucheasier time using a stronger shark. If you attempt to tackle it before getting a larger fish, then there’s a fantastic possibility that you’re likely to get pincered to departure in one swipe. Yowza.

As soon as you’re feeling courageous and powerful, take on among those video game’s crab supervisors for suitable rewards!

Super Missions are Super
You won’t get access to”Super Missions” until you’ve completed each the typical missions for a given shark, but as soon as you have them, they’re a fresh set of challenges to have that will provide you additional rewards, thereby allowing you another way to accumulate resources or maybe create with hungry shark evolution hack ios.

Based upon the size of shark which you’re taking on the Super Missions for, you may find out that you’ve already achieved some of the assignments’ targets already. Tough luck, since you’ll have to do them again, under the banner of a Super Mission! The rewards, however, make up for any monotony.